Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Hyperinflation in Germany after World War I Essay

Hyperinflation in Germany after World War I - Essay Example Why such a marvel occurred in Germany, a country with a long history of political, financial, mental, social and scholarly information and experience, shows the dangerous intensity of strategy botches brought about by shortcoming and inadequacy (Solomon 28-30). Understanding the hyperinflation that seethed from June 1922 to December 1923 requires a decent information on German history. Expansion is just one of the outside indications of various choices with respect to the flexibly and request in the business sectors for products and monetary forms that are made in the psyches of government officials, financial approach creators, representatives and buyers. A slow expansion rate is worthy, yet when these leaders settle on wrong choices simultaneously, the market separates. Hyperinflation, similar to a real fever that is an indication of contamination or an infection causing obliteration inside the body, is an indication of disorder in financial markets. Anybody acquainted with Germany's political and national history would know why such a significant number of wrong choices were made in the brains of such a large number of Germans and their remote business and political accomplices during this period, what prompted these slip-ups and, all the more critically, why. The combining of the German country was a procedure that took hundreds of years starting with the generally held conviction that in the year 9 A.D., Arminius, a ruler of the Germanic clan called the Cherusci, crushed three Roman armies in the Teutoburg Forest. With every triumph, the clan developed into the Holy Roman Empire that arrived at its top during the reign of Charlemagne in the ninth century. After his demise in 814 A.D., the domain of Germanic and Romance talking individuals at that point self-destructed, separating into eastern and western domains as indicated by the law of legacy (PIO 106-108). This short detail is imperative to comprehend the occasions legitimately identified with the investigation of hyperinflation, in light of the fact that the aggregate yearning of an in the past heavenly country that traversed from east to west to any place regions German settlements were discovered got one of the contentions utilized by legislators to legitimize their activities, regardless of how mixed up these might be. By characterizing the German Fatherland along these lines - region that had a place with old Germanic clans by success, settlement, or legacy - the fantasies and activities of a few ages of German people groups were molded by their aggressive endeavors to extend, recover, or hold what they believe is fairly theirs by verifiable right. Germany in the mid nineteenth century turned into a confederation of 39 German realms and political unions with continually moving inside limits, excluding the Germans in Bohemia (present Czech Republic) and Austria. Every realm had its own character and was not ready to give up it. This division and the political infighting among the various leaders of the realm influenced the solidarity of the administration and got one of the sparkles that lighted hyperinflation during the 1920s. Going about as improvement that made pressures in the pre-War governmental issues and economy, scholarly people like Karl Stein, Prince Karl August von Hardenberg and Wilhelm von Humboldt required the nullification of serfdom, opportunity of exchange, civil self-organization, balance under the steady gaze of the law, and general induction into the

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Quotes Free Essays

Betting was so vital to the economy of certain family that semi-espectable ladies laid down with Jockeys to draw nearer to † the horse’s mouth. (page 50) †11. â€Å"Most OndaatJes preferred alcohol, in some cases to abundance. We will compose a custom paper test on Statements or on the other hand any comparable point just for you Request Now The greater part of them were hot tempered-however they reprimanded diabetes for this at whatever point conceivable. † (page 57) †This melody can speak to Michael’s mother Doris Gratian and his father Mermlyn’s relationship, how in the start of their affection it was solid however when merlvyen began drinking their adoration was cold and squashed and how they wound up isolating. This speaks to how during 1935 ladies needed to get hitched and would battle to get the best men, and would successfully get him. This statement implies that since the ponies were utilized for military purposes. Be that as it may, the races clashed with it on the grounds that each one needed to claim a pony and influenced the economy. Ponies were utilized tor betting and they were being abused everybody would need also observe the breaks and didn't change the date of the races s for anything since it was so significant for everybody. After they had placed in the entirety of their cash and acknowledged hello had lost they would begin raising like ants so they wouldn’t be viewed as failures. This statement clarifies how important the ponies were and how individuals put all their cash into the ponies. They would even rest close to them to ensure the ponies. Individuals would place in cash so they can possess in any event a leg. The Ondaatje family would drink and accuse diabetes to come up with a rationalization. What's more, to cause it to appear as though it was Just in their blood. 12. â€Å"God cherishes an alcoholic. † (page 59)- â€Å"Reading torn 100-year-old news cut-outs that fall apart in your grasp like et sand, data intense as plastic dolls. (page 69) â€Å"There is a legend that if a youngster is given thalagoya tongue to eat he will become brillianty articulate,†¦ † (page 73) â€Å"The Sinhalese are without question one of the least melodic individuals on the planet. It would be very difficult to have less feeling of pitch, line, or mood. † ( page 76) â€Å"Ceylon is an encounter however sky, not a perpetual quality. † (page 78) â€Å"All Jungles are detestable. † (page 78) â€Å"Sweat runs with its own substantial life down a body as though a goliath egg has been broken nto our shoulders. (page 79) â€Å"Heat disfavors outsiders. † (page 80) â€Å"A perfumed ocean. The most effective method to refer to Quotes, Papers

Thursday, July 30, 2020

How to Handle Political Bullying on Facebook

How to Handle Political Bullying on Facebook Stress Management Situational Stress Print How to Handle Political Bullying on Facebook By Sherri Gordon facebook twitter Sherri Gordon is a published author and a bullying prevention expert. Learn about our editorial policy Sherri Gordon Updated on June 28, 2019 diego_cervo / iStockphoto More in Stress Management Situational Stress Effects on Health Management Techniques Job Stress Household Stress Relationship Stress Everyone has oneâ€"that Facebook friend that posts obnoxious, and sometimes offensive, political statements, articles, memes and more every day, multiple times a day. You knowâ€"that friend that has a strong opinion about anything and everything political. Even if you agree with her political views, you cringe at the inflammatory way she states her opinions. If you find yourself in this situation, you are not alone. In fact, unfriending someone for their political views is fairly common. According to a study by Pew Research Center, nearly 20 percent of social media users have blocked, unfriended or hidden someone because of their political posts online. This fact should not be surprising. Civility in politics has been decreasing for a long time and people are losing patience with the rhetoric. Much of this increase in online bullying, shaming, and political bullying has to do with the changing culture and the ability to insult others on the Internet. These insults are often made through the use of blogs, social media and more. Consequently, it is not surprising that people have become much freer with their use of words. This has become painfully apparent in recent years as religious and political disagreements become more and more volatile. And while many people have embraced the freedom that social media provides, just as many are simply fed up. A Closer Look at the Political Bullying in the 2016 Election In the 2016 election, both candidates engaged in name-calling and other bullying tactics. For instance, Democratic presidential nominee, Hillary Clinton, called people who supported Republican presidential nominee, deplorables, and said they were irredeemable.  Meanwhile, Trump labeled Clinton a nasty woman and referred to her as Crooked Hillary. Even the supporters of each candidate engaged in bullying tactics. On social media, Clinton supporters shamed Trump supporters by calling them racists, homophobes, xenophobes and a variety of other labels. On the Republican side of things, supporters yelled build that wall, and chanted lock her up at rallies and posted similar sentiments online. There is no doubt that the campaigning and debates in 2016 ignited tempers, unlike any other presidential race, has done. And while there has always been some mudslinging during elections, the 2016 election was much more volatile, much more personal. Many believe that  the passionate disagreements were far more prevalent because of the ease and influence of social media. Whats more, social media empowers people to say things that they would never say to someones face. Much of this has to do with the fact that they can hide behind a computer screen. As a result, during the election season, people on social media were not just ranting about how much they disliked the candidates, but they often took it a step further. They also  ranted about how much they disliked anyone who might support an opposing candidate often engaging in name-calling, shaming, labeling and sometimes even threats of violence.  It was cyberbullying at its worst. And while most would argue that people have a right to speak their mind, is bullying through social media really free speech? Most would argue that in some ways the mean-spirited posts, the labeling, and the name-calling actually silence free  speech. As a result, people are afraid to be honest about what they really think for fear of being judged or labeled.? Additionally,  when people do not talk about their views or why they believe a certain way, they start to make assumptions about what other people believe. This often causes them to believe that they are being judged. They also assume that people are displeased with them or disagree with them. Yet, they have never talked about what they truly believe nor have they asked why their friends believe the way that they do. As a result, there is a lot of hostility and frustration based solely on assumptions. Tips for Dealing With Obnoxious Political Posts If you are someone that would rather see posts about a persons dinner than her  monologue about a political candidate, here are some sure-fire ways to navigate the lack of digital etiquette  on Facebook without losing your sanity. Take a minute. When it comes to social media, it is easy to fire off a response before you really think about it. Resist the urge to react instead of respond. Slow down and take a minute. Scroll past the post and read something else. The goal is to avoid posting something equally inflammatory and then later regretting it. Remember, even if you delete your comment later, you can never truly make it go away. So put on the brakes. A thoughtful response, or even no response at all, is a much better approach in the long run. Ask why.  Not only does it allow for greater understanding, but it also broadens your own perspective.  Just be sure to ask in a way that doesnt put your friend on the defensive. You dont want her to feel like she has to justify her feelings to you. Instead, keep the focus on the issues. Additionally, it might be best to have this type of conversation offline and in person. This way, you can actually see the emotions she is expressing rather than trying to assume you know by interpreting her words. A lot of interpretation is lost online. It is risky to assume you know what someone is feeling when all you have to go on are a few typed words. If you do not understand why a friend feels so strongly, ask her. Find out how this impacts her life. Sometimes it helps to view the world through a different lens. Ignore, scan or move on. Sometimes the best way to deal with cringe-worthy political posts is to simply scan through them and move on, especially if the post is simply a rant laced with name-calling and labeling. An even better option is to ignore them altogether. Remember, you cannot control what your Facebook friend posts online. And you probably wont be able to change her  mind or even get her to see your side of things. But you can control how you respond. And if reading her posts irritates you, ruins your day or causes you anxiety, then it is healthier for you to ignore them. Do not allow another persons blanket bullying statements impact you and your day. Utilize the hide or block options. Fortunately, Facebook offers some options for dealing with the deluge of political bullying that takes place online. One option is to hide your friend. With this option, you remain friends but you no longer see her posts in your newsfeed. A lot of people appreciate this option because they do not want the drama of unfriending someone online, but they also do not want to see their blatantly inappropriate posts any longer either. Of course, the other option is to unfriend the person and even block her from friending you again. This option should only be used in extreme cases where you no longer hope to have contact or a relationship with the person. It is very hard to salvage a friendship once you have unfriended or blocked them on Facebook. Remember who you are dealing with. If you are friends with this person online, chances are you have some sort of relationship with the person. So when you see something that is unsettling, take a step back and look at the big picture. Is your friend going through a tough time right now? Could these political posts have something to do with a bigger issue in her  life? Try to be empathetic and remember why you are friends with this person in the first place. However, if your friends political views define who she is as a person and it gets under your skin, you have some evaluating to do. Is this person a toxic friend that you should avoid, or is her friendship worth an effort? Set some limits. If you find yourself getting too worked up about other peoples political posts and subtle bullying online, it might be a good idea to take a break. You need to protect yourself from the negative feelings these posts create in you. As a result, you may want to limit the time you spend on Facebook or take a break from it altogether. Or maybe the answer is to avoid engaging in any political discussions online. If you find that you absolutely have to say something in response to all the negativity online, consider journaling your responses but then never posting them. In this way, you have released your frustration by formulating a response, but you have not offended anyone, or ticked off your employer, by actually posting it. Check your answers. Remember, there are a lot of unsubstantiated articles and information online. Make sure that if you do post a response to a political post, that your  post is factual and can be verified. You dont want to contribute to the plethora of misinformation that is floating around on Facebook. Make sure that what you post is factual, accurate and not offensive. Keep in mind, that your goal should become a conscientious poster and not just someone who shares sensationalized stories because of their shock value. The last thing you want to do is to become just like your obnoxiously-political friend. After all, you need to protect your online reputation. Your Facebook Habit Might Actually Be an Addiction

Friday, May 22, 2020

Free Trade America Should NOT Protect Industries from...

Free Trade: America Should NOT Protect Industries from Foreign Competition Many politicians oppose free international trade, trade without any restrictions, for a couple of reasons. From their point of view it would affect the United States in several ways: 1. Many USA workers would lose their jobs because factories would be moved to the country with whom the U.S. has a Free Trade Agreement, and where working force is much cheaper. 2. Importing foreign goods and services without tariff into the United States makes it harder for domestic industries to compete with lower prices and better quality of foreign competition. 3. Some politicians feel that it is not the right decision to have†¦show more content†¦The United States’ strong economic performance is due in part by trade and investment liberalization resulting from the Uruguay Agreement and the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The openness and freedom of the economy has contributed to improving the competitiveness of the U.S. producers, creating more and better paid jobs, which in turn raised labor standards and reduced poverty. At the end of 1998 the unemployment rate fell to 4.5% and consumer price inflation to 1.6%, which is the lowest level since the 1960. This outstanding macroeconomic performance has been greatly followed by a large and growing current account deficit, which in 1998 reached a record level of $223 billion (2.7% of GDP). The trade deficit has enabled the U.S. economy to keep up with its strong rate of growth. Open economy brings imports, which are often at a lower price, and they help to satisfy domestic demand. They have also contributed to lower domestic prices and wider choice for the U.S. consumers. The U.S. producers have benefited from lower costs and wider choice of input, too. It increased their competitiveness, resulting in more jobs and higher wages. Imports have helped with inflation pressure that might otherwise have emerged as a result of the very strong growth of domestic demand and low unemployment rate, thereby supporting low market interest rates. An additional source of funds forShow MoreRelatedHow Economic Globalization Has Fostered Globalization of Critics and Criticism?3991 Words   |  16 Pagesdefinition. (Trebilcock, 2000). The concept of economic globalization stemmed from the root concept of â€Å"globalization† and by definition, pertains to that specific attribute of globalization that refers to the process of integration between the economic front and the ‘developed’, ‘under-developed’ and ‘developing’ economies (Naik, 2011). Economic globalization essentially comes together through international trade, FDIs (foreign direct investments) and the like (Naik, 2011). As stated by Naik (2011)Read MoreMcafee Case Study Essay3405 Words   |  14 Pagesequivalents, and investments. * Deferred revenue increased for the period by $220 million. B. Strategic Posture 1. Mission: a. â€Å"To secure consumers and businesses from the desktop to the core of the network by delivering best-of-breed products and services that protect †¦ global customer’s information technology systems and infrastructure.† 2. Objectives: More of a goal â€Å"become worldwide leader in intrusion prevention and risk management solutions and servicesRead MoreCarrefour Case Study16000 Words   |  64 PagesEXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT †¢ GENERAL o DEMOGRAPHIC †¢ Carrefour operates in 29 countries around the world. 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Saturday, May 9, 2020

Whispered Commonn App Essay Topics Secrets

Whispered Commonn App Essay Topics Secrets Never put off tomorrow what you could do today. On the flip side, in the event you made a great choice, focus on what influenced you to make that decision and the way it has changed you. Then think about whether it's the case that you'd make the very same decision again and why. Organize after-school help with an internet sign up. You can also get in touch with your writer to supply some excess recommendations or request information regarding the order's progress. There might be personal information which you want considered as a member of your admissions application. The tool also has Spanish language resources. Our crew of writers who provide this kind of assistance will be pleased to earn a job-winning resume for you. Where to Find Commonn App Essay Topics The procedure for your experience is extremely important. The internet process for the Common Application can be difficult, but it is a great deal better than applying to every school individually (which is terribly time-consuming and can cause errors). Processes connected with these antipsychotics during therapeutic usage, the adverse results. The Chronicles of Commonn App Essay Topics If you discover that the writer did not provide just what you expected, request a revision, and we'll make the corrections. It's an incredibly safe, and thus, d ull strategy, and a signal that the author might also be dull. A lot of the argument on tuesday hinged on the matter of the degree to which holyfield, which likewise called into question a youngster's adoption. Regardless of what topic you select, allow some time for extra editing. In general, there's no single correct topic. For this question, don't be scared to think outside the box. Your stories aren't debatable. After you inform us about all of the paper information, we'll begin searching for an ideal writer for your paper. In addition to that, each character has a particular stroke order that has to be adhered to, making writing an art form in addition to a way of communication. If you are able to paint a crystal clear picture for your reader by offering details, you're far more likely to submit a marker in their memories. For others, deficiency of religion has an equally enormous part. Every applicant have a special story. Within this essay, pick a time which you were able to obey experiences and perspectives contrary to yours with respect and maturity. Because it could tell us something about you as an individual. Do remember, however, that the absolute most important thing about the essay is the fact that it should be something only you could write! Be sure that your essay captures YOU. Regardless of which it prompt you address, it is essential to give yourself time to think about the information you are conveying and what it reveals about you. Your essay is likely to change so much in the interim between your very first draft and last revision. You're writing a college application essay, and you must know about your audience. The introduction is the initial impression that the reader has of the remaining part of the essay. Some have the ability to describe events in such detail a reader simply must get to the conclusion of the essay. Cats-1-2 common app essay for a book and compose an absurdity. What Does Commonn App Essay Topics Mean? You have to find the uncommon in what's probably common. Somebody works part-time and doesn't have sufficient time to do each of the assignments. Students lead busy lives and frequently forget about an approaching deadline. Manage student advising appointments with an on-line sign up. This prompt is a superb option if you wish to explore a single event or achievement that marked a very clear milestone in your private development. This prompt gives you the chance to speak about your passions and display your extracurricular pursuits. This new prompt provides the chance for you to di scuss something which completely enthralls you. There isn't a prompt to direct you, which means you must ask yourself the questions that will get at the center of the story that you want to tell.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

1% of Local Police Departments Free Essays

Reflections from the One-Percent of Local Police Departments with Mandatory Four-Year Degree Requirements For New Hires: Are They Diamonds in the Rough? Diana Bruns Bacone College ***Contact information Diana Bruns, Ph. D. Department Chairperson and Professor, Criminal Justice Studies Bacone College 2299 Old Bacone Road Muskogee, OK 74403 brunsd@bacone. We will write a custom essay sample on 1% of Local Police Departments or any similar topic only for you Order Now edu cell: 918-781-7295 office: 918-781-7295 **Diana Bruns is the Department Chairperson and Professor of Criminal Justice Studies at Bacone College in Muskogee, OK. Reflections from the One-Percent of Local Police Departments with Mandatory Four-Year Degree Requirements For New Hires: Are They Diamonds in the Rough? Abstract Countless studies have permeated the literature regarding the utility of a bachelor’s degree for police officers. Local law enforcement agencies with mandatory four-year degree requirements serve as the population for this study relative to the current status of college degreed officers, as well as population demographics and commonalities among such departments. The utility of college degree requirements, choice of academic discipline and why four-year degree requirements nationwide are merely a preference, not a standard mandatory hiring requirement is discussed. Current minimum educational requirements for local and state police agencies and implications for the future of the college-degreed officers are explored. Hiring college-educated candidates in the law enforcement field does not guarantee they will be good officers. Being a police officer is hard and to be successful, you have to want to be a police officer. Individuals who receive the required degree in law enforcement have demonstrated their desire. Desire is something very hard to evaluate, but such an important trait. If all other qualities are equal—the college graduate with a four-year degree in criminal justice or related field should be hired as police officers before one who doesn’t have the degree. Police Chief from department with mandatory degree requirement Introduction and Background The relevance of a college degree for police officers has been debated for decades. Numerous studies have been conducted regarding the importance of the degreed officer, while others have described how a college degree is not an essential or important ingredient for success among police officers. That precise debate—the worth of the bachelor’s degree for police officers is not the focus of this endeavor. The focus here is central to three vital panels’ recommendations from 1967-1974 proclaiming that police officers obtain baccalaureate degree—the President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice, the National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals, and the American Bar Association Project on Standards for Criminal Justice—and why so few local and state police departments have followed suit in requiring that police officers hold baccalaureate degrees, as less than 1% of such departments require a four-year degree (Hickman and Reeves, 2006). It is evident that leaders in law enforcement are hesitant to embrace the educational movement. Roberg and Bonn (2004) reiterated the nearly nonexistent numbers of police departments requiring degrees. Although leaders in law enforcement continue to hesitate the implementation of educational requirements (Carlan, 2007; Roberg and Bonn, 2004; Breci, 1997;Remington, 1990), recruitment for college graduates continues to increase. Carlan (2007) examined the worth of the criminal justice degree as valued by police officers and found that In this study, police officers (n=299) with varying levels of experience and riminal justice education revealed positive attitudes concerning the degree’s value with regard to conceptual development for employment purposes. The positive assertions in this study reflect well on the ability of criminal justice programs to prepare its clientele for meaningful employment challenges (p. 616). Johnston, Cheurprakobkit, and McKenzie (2002) revealed that l aw enforcement administrators stressed that the role of education should place importance in aiding police officers with knowledge of the legal aspects of policing as well as report writing, ethics, and procedures. The President’s Commission (1967) reported that without higher educational requirements, quality in police services could not be achieved or attained. However, over forty years later, in 2009, although most police agencies do report that they prefer a college-degreed officer, the majority of police agencies (local, state and special jurisdiction) do not require anything more than a high school diploma or equivalent. Upon reviewing 36 departments that require a four-year degree, this exploratory analysis attempts to reveal and explore the reasoning behind the small number of police departments actually requiring the degree. Results of this analysis will describe the departments with four-year mandatory degree requirements and characteristics of such departments will include opinions of police chiefs regarding why a college degree is important to police. Qualitative explanations will yield information regarding how explemplary practices of a few departments should serve as role models and guides for departments across the nation in the one-hundred year quest to professionalize the policing field. As the literature suggests, police administrators do prefer police officers to hold a baccalaureate degree, but do not require it. Verrill (2007) called for the need to determine why the select one-percent of local police departments who require the degree actually do so. This study attempts to answer that question. As stated previously, debates pertaining to the usefulness and value of a college degree for police officers have been commonplace in criminal justice literature for decades. However, at the outset, it is unclear how many police departments actually require a four-year degree and the location of such departments. This lack of clarity is further exemplified by ncertainty as to how many police officers and police agencies there actually are the in U. S. , leads to difficulty in counting police agencies (Maguire, Snipes, Uchida, and Townsend, 1998). Whatever the case, we can be assured that few police agencies (non-federal) actually require a bachelor’s degree. Is the Type of Degree Important? Verrill (2007) described the sparse amount of literature concerning the advantage or worth of a bachelor ’s degree in criminal justice and whether criminal justice employers give preferentiality to vocational over theoretical degrees or vice versa. Verrill’s study reviewed entry-level educational requirements for criminal justice agencies in Florida, where only two local police departments out of N=261 sampled required a bachelor’s degree. Realistically, Verrill’s sample is indicative of local police departments nationwide, as less than one-percent require a bachelor’s degree as a prerequisite for employment. It is unclear at this point, from the literature, whether those one-percent of police departments who require four-year degrees specify which discipline they prefer. This analysis reveals striking information regarding the few police departments that require the degree and their preferences regarding the discipline as well as if they prefer that police candidates have degrees pertaining to either vocational or theoretical orientations. Bostrom (2005) addressed differences in levels of performance and work habits among officers who had obtained Bachelor of Arts degrees and Bachelor of Science degrees, finding that officers with Bachelor of Arts degrees have better work habits (measured by sick time usage, traffic collisions, discipline) than officers with a Bachelor of Science degree. Although results were detailed with caution, as this was an exploratory study at one large police department, Bostrom called for future research in this area. Schafer and Castellano (2005) attempted to extricate the relationships that subsist among work experience, educational background and attitudes toward criminal justice education, once again finding, â€Å"the quality of police service will not significantly improve until higher educational requirements are established for its personnel† (p. 300). Research Questions 1. What is currently known about educational requirements for local and state police departments/agencies? 2. How many police departments (local) have a four-year degree requirement and where are those departments? Who makes up the one-percent of police departments that the literature refers to as requiring four-year degrees? What is the range in size of police departments that have the four-year degree requirement? Are they large departments or small departments? 3. How many departments that have the four-year degree requirement will waive the requirement, and under what conditions can the educational requirement be waived? 4. What are the education levels of chiefs of police in departments that have a four-year degree requirement? . What are the mean starting salaries for the departments that require a four-year degree? Are the starting salaries for police officers in police departments with four-year degree requirements higher than salaries for police officers in departments without four-year degree requirements? 6. Do police chiefs in departments with four-year degree requirements prefer that officers have a degree in criminal justice? 7. Do police chiefs in departments with four-year degree requirements have a preference of vocational (hands-on) orientation rather than an academic (theoretical) orientation? . Have applicant pools increased, decreased or stayed the same since their four-year degree requirement was mandated? 9. Do the police chiefs believe the degree requirement will change in time, or will it remain a mandate, with no exceptions? 10. Regarding police departments with the four-year degree requirement, why does their respective department require a four-year degree? 11. Regarding police departments with the four-year degree requirement, why do police chiefs believe so few departments across the nation actually require the degree? Current Knowledge About Educational Requirements for US Police Departments According to the U. S. Department of Justice (2004), there are 12,766 local police departments with 3,067 sheriff’s offices, 49 primary state law enforcement agencies, 1,481 special jurisdiction agencies, and 513 ‘other’ agencies totally 17,876 law enforcement agencies. As of 2003, in a sample of 3000 police departments, 98% of local police departments had an educational requirement for new recruits; 18% had ‘some type’ of college requirement; ine percent required a two-year degree and less than one-percent required a four-year degree (Hickman and Reaves, 2006). Another source, The International Association for Chiefs of Police (2008) announced that 16% of state police agencies require a two-year degree, while four-percent require a four-year degree; 13% of county police agencies require a two-year degree and an unknown percentage of county police agencies require a four-year d egree. Nine percent of local police departments require a two-year degree and two-percent require a four-year degree. However, it was unclear the name and location of the departments that required a two or a four-year degree. Furthermore, it is unclear as to where that two-percent was derived. Overall, scarce information is available regarding which departments require a two or a four-year degree. By searching state police agency and state highway patrol websites, it is evident that only three state police departments require officers to hold four-year degrees—Illinois State Police, New Jersey State Police, and North Dakota Highway Patrol. All three agencies, however, will waive educational requirements. Regarding the New Jersey State Police’s minimum qualifications, An applicant must have (1) a bachelor’s degree, signifying completion of the undergraduate curriculum and graduation from an accredited college or university or, (2) alternatively, an associate’s degree or have complete 60 college credits from an accredited college or university, plus at least two years of satisfactory employment, or (3) alternately, have completed 30 college credits from an accredited college or university, plus at least two years of active duty military service with an honorable discharge (http://www. jsp. org/recruit/qual. html). The Illinois State Police has the following minimum educational requirement: Option 1). An Associate of Arts Degree or equivalent coursework and must meet one of the following two job experience requirements: Three consecutive years of continuous, full-time service as a police officer, with the same police agency or three consecutive years of active milit ary duty. Option 2). An Associate Degree of Science or equivalent coursework and meet one of the following two job experience requirements: three onsecutive years of continuous, full-time service, as a police officer, with the same agency or three consecutive years of active military duty. Option 3). An Associate of Applied Science Degree, only if the degree is in Law Enforcement/Criminal Justice and meet one of the following two job experience requirements: Three consecutive years of continuous, full-time service as a police officer, with the same agency, or three consecutive years of active military duty. Option 4). A Bachelor’s Degree (https://www. illinoisstatetrooper. om/requiremnents. html). Lastly, North Dakota Highway Patrol’s minimum educational requirements are: An Associate degree with two years of work-related experience or a Bachelor’s degree (http://nd. gov/ndhp/employment/qualifications. html). Upon review of each state police or state highway pat rol website, the following requirements by state were revealed: presently, ten states require an Associate’s Degree or 60 hours of college credit (PA, TX, KY, MN, MO, OK, DE, CN, WI, LA). The remaining states require a high school diploma or equivalent. However, one state– Nevada, stipulates no educational requirement. Out of the 100 largest cities in the United States, only four police departments require a four-year degree (Jacksonville, FL, Arlington, TX. , St. Paul, MN, and Tulsa, OK). Upon looking at the 100 largest police departments in the United States by number of sworn officers (list provided by the Police Executive Research Forum), only 3 of the largest police departments require a four-year degree (New Jersey State Police, Illinois State Police, and Jacksonville Sheriff’s Office). After reviewing each of the 100 largest cities websites, it was determined that 67% of such departments require a police officers to have a high school diploma or equivalent; 6% require a high school diploma plus 12 hours college credit; 4% require between 30-40 hours of college credit, 19% require an Associate’s degree or 60 hours of college credit, with 4% requiring a four-year degree. Again after searching agency websites regarding career opportunities, the percentages were similar upon reviewing the largest 100 departments by number of sworn officers: 68% required a high school diploma or equivalent; 4% required a high school diploma or equivalent plus 12 hours of college credit; 4% required between 30-54 hours of college credits; 21% required an Associate’s degree of 60 hours of college credit, and 3% of the 100 largest police departments (by number of sworn officers) currently require a four-year degree. Once again, even the few that require the degree; the majority will waive the requirement, with certain stipulation—which will be discussed. To estimate whether or not the one-percent of police departments with degree requirements were actually large or small departments necessitated reviewing the LEMAS report (2003), concluding that Seventy-four percent (74%) of all local police departments served fewer than 10,000 residents, these agencies employed just 14% of all offices. About half of all officers served a jurisdiction with 100,000 or more residents. While departments serving the largest cities had thousands of officers on average, those serving fewer than 2,500 residents have an average of just four full-time employees, including three sworn officers. The Arguments: Pros and Cons of the College-Educated Police Officer The idea surrounding the purpose of college-educated officers has stemmed from two sources: the alleged importance of professionalism for the police force and to change officer attitudes (Shernock, 1992). Friedmann (2006) made an excellent point, When police officers try to do their job today without a degree, their already difficult task is made more difficult. However, chiefs who mandate the degree requirement should be aware that the transition period—where the police department does not already have a clear majority of officers with degrees—could be difficult. Police officers sometimes resist higher education requirements. Despite this resistance, police officers need higher education for the good of the profession† (p. 23). Chief of Police Hawkins (2006) reiterated his department’s four-year requirement in Burnsville, MN. , Burnsville’s four-year degree requirement helps recruit big-picture thinkers who are creative, culturally aware, and technically sound in constitutional law, and who look for the best solution to the multitudes of challenges they encounter. An officer’s well-rounded background enhances his or her ability and desire to partner with community members, use the vast resources both the residents and business owners possess, and make them part of the problem-solving process. The synergy created between the community and the officers is the basis foundation of Burnsville’s community policing efforts. Friedman, 2006, p. 28). As the debate over the need for an educated police officers has demonstrated contradictory evidence concerning college educated police officers—meaning that although many studies are supportive that officers need a college education, there is also conflicting evidence. Baro and Burlingame (1999) disputed recommendations that officers need a ba ccalaureate degree to increase levels of police professionalism, stating that officers need no more than a high school diploma or equivalency. Sherman and McLeod (1979) speculated that higher education for officers may be irrelevant because the education officers receive in higher educational institutions is quite similar to training officers receive in police academies. Critics of higher educations believe the â€Å"college-educated officers are more likely to become frustrated with their work, with restrictions imposed by supervisors, and with limited opportunities for advancement† (Worden, 1990, p. 567). Hudzick (1978) found that officers with an education place less value on obedience to supervisors and are less satisfied with their careers. Other are concerned that â€Å"college-educated officers will quickly tire of the irregular hours, constant pressures, and relative low pay of policing† (Varricchio, 1988, p. 11). Whetstone (2000) acknowledged that, â€Å"hiring candidates with improved credentials also invites eventual problems such as greater job dissatisfaction and personnel turnover† (p. 247). Kakar (1998) further demonstrated that a college education might decrease officer’s quality of service because police work does not offer opportunities to stimulate the college-educated mind. Furthermore, because police performance measures differ in studies, no real consensus exists on exactly how police performance should be defined and measured. Carter and Sapp (1990) indicated that regardless of degree requirements, 23% of police officers had obtained a four-year degree and 65% of police officers had at least one year of college. Peterson (2001) gave somewhat higher estimates, in that 30% of police officers sampled from ten medium-sized departments in the Midwest had four-year degrees. Mayo (2006) estimates between 25-30% of police officers have a four-year degree, which realistically nearly mirrors the percentage of U. S. population over age 25 who have obtained a bachelor’s degree. According to the US Census Bureau (2005) 28% of the US population over the age of 25 has obtained a bachelor’s degree, which is an all-time high. Common sense dictates that those percentages of police officers with four-year degrees are representative of the education levels of the communities they serve, if we utilize such figures and that line of reasoning. However, the small number of departments requiring degrees necessitates attention to raise awareness to the fact that less than 100 police departments, including special jurisdiction police, state police, county and local police departments mandate degrees, and whether this will change in the future. Little information exists regarding the 1% of police departments that require the four-year degree. Mayo (2006) revealed several case studies of departments with four-year degrees regarding the question of the degree and its importance to the sites’ organizational success in the communities they serve. One of the departments that was highlighted, the Dover Police Department in N. J. , which is now the Toms River Police Department, has changed its language to relax its mandatory four-year requirement, the current ordinance: requires candidates to possess a bachelor’s degree from an accredited college or university or, the candidate must possess a minimum of 64 college credits combined with two (2) full years of military experience or full time work experience (http://www. rpolice. org/Recruitment. html). Other than a list of departments that require four-year degrees recently made available on-line by the Police Association for College Education, no other list is available to reveal the one-percent of police agencies that require the four-year degree. Unfortunately, many of the departments listed on that site that have a four-year degree requirement no longer have the requirement, but have relaxed it or waived it all together. After contacting all of the departments by email or phone, the following departments on PACE’s list no longer require a four-year degree: Vallejo, CA. ; Boulder, CO. ; Peach Tree, GA. ; Holden, MA. ; St. Cloud, MN. ; Eagan City, MN. ; Borough of Gettysburg, PA. ; Edinboro, PA. ; Appleton, WI. ; Flint, MI. ; Milford, MI. ; Montvale, NJ. ; University Park, TX; Whitefish Bay, WI; and Upper Moreland, NJ. The Chief of Police, Thomas Nestle, III. , of Upper Moreland, NJ, responded via email that Upper Moreland only requires 60 hours of college credit. Nestel (2009) offered his opinion, via email, as to why the degree requirements was relaxed at his department, The applicant pool that is suited for this position frequently does not possess the educational pedigree you describe (a four-year degree). Law enforcement tends to draw military veterans and sons/daughters of existing officers. Neither group has a high rate of college graduates. Recruiting on college campuses has proven to be very unsuccessful. Policing doesn’t seem to be an appealing direction for the college graduate. In recent years, other departments (Memphis, TN, Plano, TX, Portland, OR) once known to have had a four-year degree requirement, further made national headlines regarding the choice to relax their respective educational requirement. Interestingly, many other police departments were found that were not included in the Police Association for College Education’s (PACE) list regarding police departments that require four-year degrees as of 2006. A massive Internet search was undertaken to locate local police departments that currently require a four-year degree for new patrol officers. Additionally, numerous contacts via telephone to police chiefs and recruits were attempted to uncover additional police departments with four-year degree requirements. However, most of those attempts were unsuccessful for little knowledge exists as to whom the police departments requiring four-year degrees actually were in the U. S. Therefore, it was necessary to rely on departmental websites in attempts to discover who indeed mandated the baccalaureate degree requirement. Problematically, many departmental websites lacked clarity regarding educational requirements. Therefore, if relevant information could not be obtained via websites, many telephone contacts to police departments led to the discovery of 60 local police departments, including local police departments and county sheriff offices that require a four-year degree for police officers. However, there are several special jurisdiction police agencies that also require officers to hold a baccalaureate degree and will not waive educational requirements, including the Missouri Department of Conservation (law enforcement) and the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. However, special jurisdiction police agency degree requirements are not the focus of this analysis. Sixty police agencies (local and county) were unearthed to indeed have the requirement–Illinois has the greatest number of police departments requiring a four-year degree, with eleven; New Jersey has seven; Ohio has eight; Pennsylvania has six; Michigan has 5; Texas has four; Wisconsin has 4; Colorado has 3; South Carolina has 2; Florida has 2; Minnesota has 2; Oregon, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, and Missouri each have one local police department that has a four-year degree requirement. Special jurisdiction police agencies aside, caution however, that of those 60 police departments, only 37 will not waive or relax their educational requirements for any exception. Therefore, there are 37 local police departments that will not waive their educational requirements on any grounds. Table 1 contains the 37 local departments that will not waive educational requirements. Population size, gathered from Sperling’s Best Places (www. bestplaces. net) follow to demonstrate the size of each city in which the respective department is located. Regarding county police departments, population size was not included. Table 1 Note: N=37. This may not be the complete list. However, no other such list is available. Simple computations reveal the Mean for the population size of local police departments with mandatory degree requirements is (X=61,911), with the Median (MD=31,891). Due to the reality that there are so few local police departments mandating degrees, it is relevant to include examples of specific educational requirements for such departments regarding their policy regarding mandatory four-year degree education requirements in Table 2. Local Police Departments Requiring Four-Year Degrees, No Exceptions Police DepartmentLocationPopulation Size Arvada Police DepartmentCO104,838 Arlington Police DepartmentTX367,197 Bethel Park Police Department PA 31,891 Bloomfield Township Police Department MI 65,796 Canfield Police Department OH 7,061 Centerville Police Department OH 23,046 Cleveland Heights Police Department OH 47,097 Deer Park Police Department TX 29,748 Burnsville Police Department MN 59,321 Eatontown Police Department NJ 14,022 Elgin Police Department IL 98,846 Gaston County Police Department NC Flint Township Police Department MI 32,753 Green Tree Borough Police Department PA 4,396 Lakewood Police DepartmentCO140,024 Leonia Police DepartmentNJ 8,799 Mahwah Police DepartmentNJ 24,560 Middleburg Heights Police DepartmentOH 15,237 Mt. Lebanon Police DepartmentPA 5,481 Multnomah County Sheriff’s DepartmentOR Naperville Police DepartmentIL140,633 Norton Shores Police DepartmentMI 23,429 Novi Police DepartmentMI 52,621 Owasso Police DepartmentMI 15,388 Palatine Police DepartmentIL 66,596 Platteville Police DepartmentWI 9,748 Pueblo Police DepartmentCO103,730 Peters Township Police DepartmentPA 4,683 Richmond Heights Police DepartmentMO 9,228 Schaumburg Police DepartmentIL 73,890 Smithfield Police DepartmentRI 21,863 South Park Township Police DepartmentPA 14,647 Strongsville Police DepartmentOH 43,347 Sugar Land Police DepartmentTX 79,943 Tulsa Police DepartmentOK385,486 Wheaton Police Department IL 54,611 Wilmette Police Department IL 26,737 Table 2 Examples of Educational Specification Per Department That Have Mandatory Four-year Degree Requirements PoliceEducational Requirement Specification Department Arvada PDâ€Å"Bachelor’s degree from an accredited college or university (final semester seniors are eligible). This requirement will not be waived for any reason† (http://arvadapd. org/join-our-team/requirements/. html). Arlington PDâ€Å"Possess a Bachelor’s degree from an accredited college or university. Education is not waived for prior military service or prior experience† http://www. rlingtonpd. org/index. asp? nextpg=recruiting/require. asp). Centerville PDâ€Å"Bachelor’s Degree Required† (http://ci. centerville. oh. us/index. php? option=com). Deer Park PDâ€Å"Bachelor’s degree by hire date† (http://www. ci. deer-park. tx. us/department/index. php? fDD=15-0 Eatontown PDâ€Å"Effective September 1, 2008, applicant mus t have a bachelor’s degree, signifying completion of the undergraduate curriculum and graduation from an accredited college or university† (http://www. nj. com/police/careers. html). Lakewood PDâ€Å"Bachelor’s degree in any discipline—no exceptions† (http://www. ci. lakewood. co. us/index. cfmp). Tulsa PDâ€Å"Applicants must have completed a Bachelor’s degree with a C+ average or better at an accredited college. No military hours or credits are acceptable unless they are received from or converted through an accredited college† (http:/www. tulsapd. ord/recruiting/requirements. htm Note. This is not an exhaustive list. Examples of Specific Educational Requirements Per Departments Regarding Mandatory Four-Year Degree Education Requirement, With Waiver Exceptions As stated previously, only 37 local police departments require a four-year degree with no exceptions allowed. However, 23 other local police departments require a four-year degree, but will waive the requirements with certain exceptions, as do the Illinois State Police and the New Jersey State Police. Therefore, those 23 departments with similar wording or language embedded in their respective specific job requirements or career opportunities containing ‘require a four-year degree, but will relax requirements,’ will be included in departments that require four-year degrees. The Toms River Police Department provides a good example of ‘waiver exceptions,’ The current ordinance requires candidates to possess a bachelor’s degree from an accredited college or university or the candidate must possess a minimum of 64 college credits combined with two (2) full years of military experience or full-time regular police experience† (http://www. trpolice. org/Recruitment. html). Other specific examples of police department requirements with waivers include: Charleston Police Department, Bachelor’s degree and above or Associate degree with four years of prior law enforcement experience or military experience† (http:www. charlestoncity. info/dept/content. aspx? nid=817cid=9931). Coral Springs Police Department’s requirements are similar, â€Å"Applicant must possess: A Bachelor’s degree from an accredited college or (4) years law enforcement experience and at least 60 credits from an accredited college, or (4) year s military experience and at least 60 credits from an accredited college† (http://www. theblueline. com/feature/Flcoralsprings. html). Other examples include: 1. Highland Park Police Department â€Å"Bachelor’s degree from an accredited college or university—consideration may be given for applicants who possess at least 60 credit hours† (http://www. hptxorg/index. aspx? page=233). 2. Jacksonville Sheriff’s Office â€Å"Must possess a Bachelor’s degree from an accredited college or possess an accredited Associate’s degree or equivalent (60 semester hours/90 quarter hours) with four (4) years prior active military or law enforcement experience or possess 90 semester/135 quarter hours with two (2) years prior active military or law enforcement experience† http:www. coj. net/Departments/Sheriffs+Office/About+ the+JSO/default. htm). 3. Livonia Police Department â€Å"Have been awarded an Associate Degree in Law Enforcement or Public Administration or a Bachelor Degree in any non-Criminal Justice discipline† (http://www. ci. livonia. mi. us/default. asp? area2=departments%2Fcivil+service) 4. O sh Kosh Police Department â€Å"Associate degree—In Criminal Justice/Police Science; Bachelor degree—in any field† (https://wilenet. org/html/employment/showopportunities. jsp). 5. Tinley Park Police Department All applicants must have completed 2 years satisfactory experience as a certified sworn law enforcement officer in the state of Illinois or posses an Associates Degree with at least a C average (or its equivalent) with an emphasis in criminal justice, or possess 60 college credit hours with at least a C average (or its equivalent) with an emphasis in criminal justice, or possess a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree from a four year college or university† (http:www. tinleyparkpolice. org/police. html). Haddon Township Police department is another that was included in the list of police departments that require a four-year degree, however, their exception has somewhat different specifications: â€Å"Applicants must make a pre-employment agreement to achieve a Baccalaureate Degree within eight years from the time of employment. † (http://www. haddontwppolice. com/). Table 3 includes Police Departments that require four-year degrees, with exceptions or waiver conditions. Table 3 Police Departments that Have Four-Year Degree Requirements, With Exceptions PoliceLocation Departments Bath Police Department OH Bainbridge Township Police Department OH Charleston Police Department SC Cherry Hill Police Department NJ Coral Springs Police Department FL Haddon Township Police Department NJ Highland Park Police Department TX Hinsdale Police Department IL Jacksonville Sheriff’s Office FL Langlade County Sheriff’s Department WI Livonia Police Department MI Kettering Police Department OH Montgomery Township Police Department NJ Osh Kosh Police Department WI Plano Police Department TX Richland County Sheriff’s Office SC River Forest Police Department IL Shaler Police Department PA St. Paul Police Department MN Tinley Park Police Department IL Toms River Police Department NJ (Formerly Dover PD) Vernon Hills Police Department IL Willowbrook Police Department IL Note. N=23. Methodology Regarding the 1% of local police departments that require a four-year degree at the time of hire, it was noted previously that little information exists about the location of such departments. Intensive Internet searches, email and telephone contacts with multitudes of police recruiters and chiefs yielded 60 departments with four-year degree requirements, although only 37 of such departments had mandatory educational requirements resulting in no educational waivers. As it was unclear which department had mandatory requirements at the outset, 45 questionnaires were mailed to police chiefs at departments, which were believed to have mandatory requirements. Of those 45 questionnaires mailed, 40 were completed and returned–which was an excellent overall response rate of nearly 89%. Four of those surveys revealed that the departments surveyed did not require the four-year degree requirement; therefore, the results were not utilized. Thirty-six (36) returned questionnaires remained, revealing both important and relevant information about departments with mandatory requirements and were the subjects for this study. Thirty-seven (37) departments overall were found with mandatory requirements. Items on the questionnaires pertained to a wide range of subjects including the year in which such departments implemented their degree requirement; number of sworn officers; the chief’s education level; mean starting salaries for police officers; whether or not police chiefs had a preference in degree discipline; whether the chiefs preferred their officers had degrees that were vocational or theoretical in nature; whether chiefs preferred bachelor or arts degrees over bachelor of science degree; if officers who were hired before the degree requirement was established were required to complete respective degrees; whether they believed the degree requirement would be altered in the future; if applicant pool had increased, decreased or remained the same since the establishment of the degree requirement; the requirement’s impact on minority recruiting, and whether police chiefs believed officers with a college degree perform better than officers without a college degree. Additionally, two questions qualitatively regarding why police chiefs believed their respective departments had the mandatory requirement and why police chiefs believe only 1% of other departments have followed suit in mandating the requirement. Although glaring limitations to this analysis stem from the fact the little information exists regarding the reality of those one-percent of police departments that mandate a four-year degree, this is an exploratory step enabling further exploration into this important issue. Ultimately, the future professionalism of the policing field does hinge on raising degree requirements across police departments in America. Although only 36 police chiefs were surveyed, their information speaks volumes as to the need for other departments to follow their lead. As one chief eloquently stated: It is evident that society has become more complex. Problem solving skills along with communication skills are even more important today for police officers. A college education gives a foundation and more importantly legitimizes police work as a profession The instrument utilized has not proven reliable. However, this began a process of raising issues regarding the importance and the future of the college-degreed officer. At the outset, many officers are obtaining four-year degrees regardless of whether the degree is required or not. Results Information regarding the analysis of data is organized according to the research questions. For each question, the results are followed by an explanation and discussion of the findings. Only descriptive statistics were utilized, as there was no need for making inferences in this analysis. Eleven research questions were addressed in attempts to determine how departments that require four-year degrees are different from departments that have the requirement, and will waive it, or do not have such requirements. Descriptive data from the surveys revealed that the first department implemented their mandatory degree requirement in 1963. One chief responded, Our degree requirement was implemented in 1990. We changed the entry-level minimum educational requirement from a high chool diploma to a bachelor’s degree over the course of seven years. Research indicates police agencies should require a four-year degree. Table 4 describes the year departments implemented their mandatory degree requirement, with a range from 1963-2008. Table 4 Frequencies and Percentages for the Year Degree Requirements were Implemented Year Degree Requirement Implemented f% 1963 12. 8 1969 38. 3 1975 25. 6 1976 12. 8 1981 12. 8 1984 12. 8 1986 38. 3 1987 12. 8 1990 4 11. 1 1991 12. 8 1992 1 2. 8 1993 12. 8 994 12. 8 1995 12. 8 1996 12. 8 1997 25. 6 1998 38. 3 2000 12. 8 2005 12. 8 2006 1 2. 8 2008 12. 8 Note. N=36 It was apparent from the literature that only three of the largest police departments (by sworn officer) required a four-year degree. Tulsa Police Department is the largest department in this study, with 844 sworn officers. However, Tulsa is not the norm regarding departments with degree requirements and number of sworn officers, as results will show that most police departments with degree requirements have less than 100 sworn officers. However, of the 36 respondents in this particular study, the range of number of sworn officers was 15 at the smallest department to 844 sworn officers at the largest department included. The mean number of sworn officers was 127. 20 (SD=171. 46, MD=70). Table 5 illustrates the frequencies and percentages of sworn officers in departments with mandatory degree requirements, demonstrating that most of the departments with the requirement have fewer than 100 sworn officers; 16 departments have fewer than 50 sworn officers. Table 5 Frequencies and Percentages of Number of Sworn Officers in Departments with Mandatory Degree Requirements Number of Sworn Officers f % 1512. 8 2025. 6 2112. 8 212. 8 2512. 8 2712. 8 2912. 8 3112. 8 3412. 8 3725. 6 4012. 8 4312. 8 4612. 8 4812. 8 5412. 8 7025. 6 7212. 8 7412. 8 7512. 8 9812. 8 10312. 8 11225. 6 13712. 8 16012. 8 16512. 8 18912. 8 20012. 8 20512. 8 28212. 8 34012. 8 61512. 8 84412. 8 Note. N=36. Regarding the police chief’s level of educat ion, Table 6 contains the frequencies and percentages associated with levels of education broken down into five categories: Associate’s Degree, Bachelor’s Degree; One Master’s Degree; Multiple (2) Master’s Degree’s, and Doctorate Degree. One of the departments where the chief had an Associates degree, the mandatory requirement was implemented in 1981. Furthermore, in all 36 departments surveyed, no officer was on the force without a degree before the educational mandate has implemented was required to obtain a four-year degree. In essence, the grandfather clause was utilized. The same was true with the chief’s who did not meet the degree requirement, as they were not required to meet new degree requirements. Table 6 Police Chief’s Level of Education in Departments with Mandatory Four-Year Degree Requirements Degree Type Earnedf% Associate’s Degree25. 6 Bachelor’s Degree 10 27. 8 One Master’s Degree 22 61. 1 Two Master’s Degrees12. 8 Doctorate Degree12. 8 Note. N=36 Regarding the mean starting salaries for the departments that require a four-year degree, the mean starting salaries for police officers in police departments with four-year degree requirements are higher than salaries for police officers in departments without four-year degree requirements. City data was additionally gathered (www. bestplaces. net) regarding median household income for the 37 original locations of departments with mandatory degree requirements. The median household income for city residents pertaining to this sample was $61,330. According to the U. S. Census Bureau (2008) the median household income reached $50,233 in 2007. Therefore, it was likely that mean starting salaries for police officers in these locations would also be higher. According to one police chief surveyed: It’s all about tradition, size of city and location. The Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics On-line (2006) states that the mean starting salary for police officers ranging from populations from 10,000 to over 1,000,000 was $38,569. As shown in Table 7, the mean starting salaries for police officers in police departments with mandatory four-year degree requirements was quite higher. A striking example of this is illustrated in one chief’s words, Thirty-nine percent of our residents over the age of 25 have an advanced collegiate degree. Our population is 27,000. Our residents are university professors, attorneys, medical doctors, CEO’s. Our village is considered upper class economically and home values are quite high. Many well-known people live here. Our police officers are comfortable inter-acting in our residents’ homes, even on the most sensitive matters. We don’t feel inferior. We belong here. Our residents value us. The four-year degree requirement helps us significantly in recruiting. We provide an average of more than 100 hours of training annually to our officers. Our ‘brand’ is that we are the ‘education and training’ department. This has been very effective for us. Table 7 Means and Other Statistics Concerning Salaries for Police Officers in Departments With Mandatory Four-Year Degree Requirements Starting Salary Mean $47,222 Median $46,786 Mode $40,000 SD $6,024 Minimum $34,901 Maximum $58,931 Note. N=36. Only two of the departments surveyed required that officer possess a four-year degree in Criminal Justice or Law Enforcement. It is common that police departments requiring Associate’s degrees are specifically looking for their police candidates to have an Associate’s degree in Criminal Justice or a closely related field. However, upon surveying police chiefs in departments with mandatory four-year degree requirements, only seven or 19. 4% preferred criminal justice or closely related degrees. Seventy-five ercent (75%) of police chiefs in this study believed that a four-year degree in any discipline was acceptable. Two police chiefs in this sample were uncertain as to whether they preferred a criminal justice degree to a degree in any o ther discipline. When asked whether the police chiefs preferred a practical/vocational degree or a degree that was theoretical/academic in nature, or if they had no preference, the majority (63. 9%) of chiefs had no preference–either orientation was acceptable, stating that was precisely the four-year degree in itself that mattered. Table 8 illustrates the frequencies and percentages of practical versus theoretical orientations. Table 8 Frequencies and Percentages of Degree Orientation Preference: Practical v. Theoretical Degree Orientation Preferencef% Prefer practical/vocational orientation822. 2 Prefer theoretical/academic orientation411. 1 No preference, either acceptable 2363. 9 Uncertain 1 2. 8 Note. N=36. The results of this study lend little support either way to Bostrom’s (2005) finding. Although several police chiefs could break down the percentage of their officers who had a Bachelor of Arts degree or Bachelor of Science degree, only one respondent believed that officers with a Bachelor of Science perform better than officers with a Bachelor of Arts degree. Seventy-five (75%) or 27 police chiefs believed there is no difference in work habits or performance regarding whether an officer has a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree. The remaining respondents (25%) were uncertain as to whether there was a true difference among the types of degree. Whatever the case, a common theme emerged, We believe the quality of our officers and the services provided are enhanced by a better-educated workforce. Policing is an extremely complex profession, requiring individuals who can apply abstract concepts within difficult situations. We can also assign more complex duties to our officers. Table 9 reviews the police chief’s opinions regarding the future of the degree requirement, and whether they believed it would be altered in the future. It was clearly apparent that in these departments, the degree requirement is a fixed quality. Table 9 Chiefs’ Opinions Regarding the Future of Their Degree Requirement Future Expectations f% Expect to retain requirement Indefinitely3391. 7 Expect requirement to be altered In future 2 5. 6 Uncertain 1 2. 8 Note. N=36. We hope to keep our degree requirement forever. With the high percentage of college graduates in today’s society, I don’t believe this requirement is unreasonable. It’s our goal to continue to pursue the ‘most qualified’ applicants for our police department. Many police departments are hesitant to adopt a mandatory educational requirement due to fears that applicant pools will dwindle if requirement is enforced. According to this sample, nearly 64% of police chiefs reported that their respective applicant pools have indeed decreased due to their educational mandate. However, others felt different. The four-year degree requirement has served us well. We typically receive about 70 applicants for every 1-3 openings we try to fill. All of which have the four-year degree and either enrollment or completion of the police academy. Another responded in a way to overcome the issue of lower applicant pools, cautioning a reason why this will not happen at large, Yes, the requirement decreases this applicant pool. In my opinion, for a department to have an educational requirement such as ours, a strong recruitment effort is necessary. We recruit over 15 northern Ohio colleges that have law enforcement majors programs to get an adequate number of participants to take our civil service tests. That is an expensive endeavor, one that most cities won’t make. † Table 10 reviews police chief’s opinions regarding application pools and their particular educational requirement. Table 10 Stability of Application Pools in Police Departments with Mandatory Four-Year Degree Requirement Level of Police Applicants f% Application pool has increased With degree requirement25. 6 Application pool has decreased With degree requirement 23 63. 9 Application pool has stayed the same 10 27. 8 Uncertain 12. 8 Note. N=36. One of the predominant reasons offered as to why more police departments do not have a mandatory degree requirement is that enforcing such a mandate would have a negative impact on recruiting. One chief replied, it’s ‘politically correct’ to lower education standards to avoid the wrath of the special interest-minority groups who wish to lower educational standards to increase the minority population in the applicant pool. Table 11 describes frequencies and percentages of police chiefs’ opinions regarding their requirement’s impact on minority recruiting. Interestingly, only 11% of respondents believed the requirement had a positive impact on recruiting minorities. Two interesting responses emerged regarding the process of calming the regarded negative impact on recruiting: If I can keep the requirement a few more years, we will have a majority of officers with degrees and there will be less internal pressure to lower standards. As long as we hire a significant percentage of minorities, there will be less claims of adverse impact—nine are female, five are Hispanic. We will evolve to the point that candidates for promotion with degrees are more likely to get the appointment. Lack of applicant pool and minorities. While this is true, it can be overcome. We have fewer applicants, but they are higher quality. Our recruitment methods continually change to reach our target audience. We work with many minority groups to reach out to minority populations. One respondent was adamant regarding this issue, The minority community that believes there would be an ‘adverse impact. ’ There isn’t. Table 11 Requirements Impact on Recruiting Minorities Level of Impact f % Requirement has had a positive Impact on recruitment of Minorities411. 1 Requirement has had a negative impact on recruitment of minorities1027. 8 Requirement has had no impact on recruitment of minorities1130. 6 Uncertain 1130. 6 Note. N=36. Another important issue addressed concerns that highly relevant debate: Does a college degree make for a better police officer? The answer to that question among the 36 police chiefs was not unanimous, but the majority (80. 6%) indeed believed that officers with a degree perform better. In efforts to once again address this century-old debate, Table 12 describes the realities of police chiefs’ opinions on this theme. Table 12 Do Officers with a College Degree Perform Better? Police Chief’s Opinions f% Yes, officers with a degree perform better2980. 6 No, officers with a degree do not perform better 411. 1 Uncertain 3 8. 3 Note. N=36. In an attempt to dig deeper into the above issues and subjects, a qualitative approach was utilized to uncover themes predominant to this analysis. Although important descriptive information has been revealed, few attempts have been taken to qualitatively explore the two important issues relevant here—opinions of police chiefs from that one-percent of police departments with mandatory degree requirements. Herein, two final questions needed exploration: Why do their departments actually have their mandatory degree requirement and why they believe so few departments actually require the degree? After careful thought and consideration, they shared their opinions and beliefs—those of which should be held in high regard, as they are the select few who have shown to be pioneers in their concrete efforts to bring about professionalism to the policing field. Police Chief’s Explanations as to Why Their Respective Departments Have the Four-Year Degree Requirement Aside from stern recommendations encouraging police administrators and community leaders to adopt educational standards, Our department adopted the requirement based Carter, Sapp and Stephens findings and the recommendations of the 1967 Presidential Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals that said that a four-year degree should be required by all law enforcement by 1981 six themes emerged from analyzing the data regarding why these departments actually have the degree requirement. 1. It is our tradition and part of our institutional, organizational and community culture and we are valued. It’s our tradition. We are the only agency in the state that still requires a four-year degree. We have always required this and I believe we hire exemplary people with more maturity and a strong sense of direction than those without the degree. It’s really a huge part of our culture. We hope to keep our four-year educational degree requirement forever. With the high percentage of college graduates in today’s society, I don’t believe this requirement is unreasonable. It’s our goal to continue to pursue the ‘most qualified’ applicants for our department One of the best things I did 17 years ago was to convince the governing body to pass the four-year degree requirement. Since then the department has hired 140 of our 160 officers (bright, educated and professional). After becoming Chief in 1992, I felt strongly that this would have a very positive impact on the department and it has. Very well-respected, very few discipline problems or concerns. 2. The degree carries with it a level of expertise, knowledge and perseverance that represent us in our communities well. The requirement for a bachelor’s degree generally assures that an applicant can read and write; has been exposed to complex written materials requiring some level of analysis; has developed some level of critical thinking and communication skills, and has achieved at least some measurable relatively long-term goal in their lifetime. A bachelor’s degree limits the number of applicants who, most probably, would not be selected anyway. It also increases the quality of the applicant pool (education-level wise), which makes for a better police officer and increases the minimum age of the applicants, making them more experienced in life. It also shows that you have people at the very least, had the ‘stick-to-it-ivness’ to persevere through four years of college. It also eliminates the need for education reimbursement for officers pursuing bachelor’s degrees. We believe that it provides us with a more mature, well-rounded and worldly candidate who has more experience interacting with many different people from all walks of life† 3. Education levels of the police force should mirror the education level of the communities they serve. To reflect the demographics of the community we serve. According to the Census, Wilmette has one of the highest education levels in America. We want to be representative of those we serve in race, gender, education level and foreign language. This is also a successful strategy for maintaining high salaries and benefits. We wanted to ensure our police officers’ education level closely mirrored the education level and demographics of our community. Over 70% of adult residents in our community have a bachelor’s degree. 4. A belief in excellence and quality—the degree makes a difference in performance. The department instituted this educational requirement in 1993 due to the belief that educated officers will be better decision makers and have better communication skills, both in oral and written form Department belief of excellence—higher quality of service to community, being leaders in profession Quality candidate, self-thinking and less supervision. Enhanced knowledge, skills and abilities as well as communications skills (oral and written); critical thinking and analytical skills; broader viewpoints; more tolerant; foundation of criminal justice concepts; self-discipline; and time management. We believe that a better educated work-force is necessary in dealing with the public and are higher educated. We also believe that education enhances communication skills which are necessary in police work. A higher educated person is a more rounded individual, which leads to a better police officer To have a better qualified work force 5. A belief that the mandatory degree promotes professionalism both in their communities and for the entire police field. We believe that this should be the standard if we are to continue to develop and promote a professional police organization Academics have pushed our department to a new level of professionalism and innovation To significantly improve the quality of police services via intelligent, articulate and professional personnel To establish professional standards at entry-level We are located in a city with a university with a strong criminal justice program. We have several members of our police and fire commission who are affiliated with the university. The four-year degree requirement enhances our professionalism. 6. Officers with a college degree are more mature and have stronger goal- reaching abilities. I feel that a person demonstrates his/her desire to be a police officer by completing four year of study in criminal justice. They prove not only a strong desire to become a police officer, but possess the ability to set a goal and achieve it. It also demonstrates that ability to learn. That is why a four-year bachelors degree in criminal justice, criminology or law enforcement exists. It is specific to those who set a goal for law enforcement and achieve it. Increases odds of mature/smart candidate. Maturity, dedication, experience and age of applicants are more suitable for employment. Police Chief’s Explanations as to Why They Believe So Few Departments in the U. S. Actually Require a Four-Year Degree Only three out of the 36 police chiefs surveyed stated that they were not satisfied with their department’s educational policy. However, over 90% were satisfied with their departmental policies requiring college degrees. Aside from the following two realities many police leaders encounter–one being that the college degree is not mandated as a requirement by most licensing boards, and it may be prevented because of civil service regulations–five themes emerged regarding police chiefs explanations as to why they believe so few departments actually require degrees: 1. It’s all about money and over-all job satisfaction that one perceives a college-degree should bring. We have issues retaining officers and we frequently lose them to higher paying positions outside the field of policing. University instructors, technical school instructors, social work have all been attractive to our officers. Governments are reluctant to pay the higher wages for an applicant with a degree. Most agencies cannot pay adequate salaries for advanced degrees. Higher degreed people are not satisfied being a police officer. Money. Most departments cannot afford to start our a patrol officer at what a college graduate could make It certainly can hurt the applicant pool, depending on the salary Possibly they believe their pay-rates are not high enough to attract college graduates. Lack of pay for many smaller agencies 2. The degree requirement decreases applicant pools. Although some did not agree, the majority of police chiefs surveyed stated their department’s mandatory degree equirement has reduced applicant pools. It reduces the pool of potential applicants at a time when suitable applicants are hard to find. There remains a high percentage of law enforcement executives and government officials who believe a four-year degree is not a necessity in preparing an individual for a law enforce ment career. Because of the difficulty in finding a sufficient number of qualified candidates Reduction in applicant pool is significant 3. The chiefs in this studied strongly valued education, however education overall is under-valued in policing. Most chiefs say they value education, but stop short of making it a requirement. Education is under-valued in policing. The four-year degree requirement make recruiting tougher and it creates challenges for retaining personnel. † I still believe that the majority of police leaders are, as a law-enforcement culture, anti-education for police officers 4. Police leaders who have not attained a college degree may not find one necessary. Therefore, this presents itself as a great challenge, one of increasing overall education standards. Administrators may not believe a college degree is necessary, especially if they have not earned one How to cite 1% of Local Police Departments, Essay examples

Wednesday, April 29, 2020

Literary Study For Dummies Essays - Literary Criticism,

Literary Study For Dummies A Modified Version of R. L. McGuire's Passionate Attention: an introduction to literary study. Literature and criticism Authors basic assumption of a book- the reading and the study of literature cannot and do not take place outside the context of human values. One's unique personal experiences are from whence their values are formed. These values come to light as a reader reads or a writer writes. Literature is a record of specific personal perceptions: H. Read-"the outer image of inward things". Literature proves the richness not the limitations of being human. Literary criticism is discernment-the ability to see. The student needs to form their own critical criteria and offer an interpretation of the work based on those criteria. Judgmental reviewing is narrow and only one aspect of literary criticism. The value of criticism is not that it lays down laws that any reader must follow, but that it offers a new way of seeing a literary work, which may not have been possible to the reader. For example in the critical analysis of a poem the reader might look for the connections between words, stanzas, structure and ideas. The four basic approaches to literary criticism are: 1) the mimetic 2) the pragmatic 3) the expressive 4) the objective Mimetic approach- describes the relationship of the literary work to the world or the universe in which the work was conceived or being read. Pragmatic approach- describes the effects of the work on its audience. Williams 2 Expressive approach- proposes the study of the relationship of the work to the writer: biographical, psychological, history, culture. Objective approach- is that which studies the work in and for itself without reference to the world in which it exists, its effect on its readers, or the works relationship to the author. The work for itself Objective criticism- the study of a literary work is done without reference to the mimetic, pragmatic, or expressive possibilities of interpretation. This type of criticism regards the literary work as an object in and for itself because it is art and the work of an individual artist. The literary work is a craft, a constructed pattern of words, and the basis for our speculations, for its truth, its revelation, and its power. Descriptive Critical Activities- seeks primarily to describe a text. It is the approach to the work for itself in its simplest form. It is employed on revisions, editions, and on the finished version. Concern lies with the resulting product and its theme or central idea. Generic criticism- study of the work for itself, the types of literature this criticism employs is poems, novels, and plays. The study of poetics or prosody is the learning of basic metrical patterns and verbal effects: iambic, tetrameter, couplets, alliteration, rhyme, etc.... This type of study serves to remind us of a vital aspect of the writers' art. The writer is a craftsman of sound and effect as well as ideas. Keep in mind that writers can be conventional or unconventional. Thematic approach- attempts to bring the various aspects of form as well as content together to make a statement about the subject of a work. It may also concern itself with the message or moral of that work. Unity- if a literary work can generate its own meaning by virtue of its internal coherence, then a critical method can concern itself with that esthetic universe. Unity of Theme- all of the work is about the same topic. Unity of Imagery- all the images contribute to the same general vision, implication, theme, or central image. Williams 3 Unity of Tone & Form- the parts of the work fit together and support each other. According to Coleridge, "But if the definition sought for be that of legitimate poem, I answer, it must be one, the parts of which mutually support and explain each other; all in their proportion harmonizing with, and supporting the purpose and known influences of metrical arrangement.. ."(McGuire 22). New criticism- shows interconnections with emphasis on the work. Mimetic-Mimesis-Imitation Mimetic criticism- is that which asks how a literary work is important to any of the worlds to which it is related. The best place to begin a survey of mimetic approaches is with the connection between the work and the time in which it was written. Guideline 1) discover the extent of the departure or conformity of the work from the era/culture in which it was produced. This teaches the student the values of the age in which the work was written. This entails immersion in the