Friday, August 23, 2019

Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia Literature Review Essay

Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia Literature Review - Essay Example panic attack are the need to escape, a feeling of imminent danger or doom, heart palpitations, trembling, sweating, chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, nausea or abdominal discomfort, tingling sensation, dizziness or light-headedness, fear of losing control and chills or heat flush (ADAA, 2009). Many people with panic disorder suffer from agoraphobia. In agoraphobia, the individual avoids going to places or situations where either an attack of panic had previously occurred or the individual may think that the escape route from that place may be difficult. Those suffering from agoraphobia are constantly on guard for the next episode of panic attack. According to DSM-IV-TR, for an individual to be diagnosed as having panic disorder, "panic attacks must be associated with more than 1 month of subsequent persistent worry about (1) having another attack, (2) consequences of the attack, or (3) significant behavioral changes related to the attack" (Daniels, 2006). Agoraphobia causes significant psychological anguish and also many social, medical and occupational consequences like restricted role functioning, increased use of health care and social withdrawal (Daniels, 2006). Panic disorder is characterised by panic attacks which occur spontaneously and unexpectedly and the frequency of these attacks vary from several attacks a day to only a few per year. Many theories have been put forward to ascertain the pathophysiology of panic disorder. While some researchers favour the serotonergic model wherein the exaggerated response of the post-synaptic receptor to synaptic serotonin is the proposed to be the cause of panic attack, some others postulate increased sensitivity to adrenergic discharge as the cause. Several other models have also been proposed like the the lactate model and the locus cerulus model. The prevalence of panic disorder is estimated to be 1.5- 5%. (Daniels, 2006). Panic disorder is a wide spectrum and other than panic attacks and

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